Right at the top of north-eastern India, crowning its six clustered sisters like a protective helmet, is Arunachal Pradesh, the `Land of the Dawn-lit- Mountains.'
Being eastern most point of India, this is the place to receive dawning sun’s first ray. Dawn first illuminates Arunachal's border with China: a long border, which stretches all the way from its east, over to its northern boundaries and down to its north- western edge where it merges with Tibet. To its west is Bhutan and on its southern end it touches Assam, Nagaland and Burma.
Arunachal Pradesh, one of the most sparsely populated states of India acquired an independent political status in January 20, 1972, when it was declared as Union Territory under the name of Arunachal Pradesh. The state of Arunachal Pradesh Bill was passed by the Parliament in 1986 and with effect from February 20, 1987 Arunachal Pradesh became the 24th state of Indian Union.
Arunachal finds mention in the literature of Kalika Purana and Mahabharata. This place is supposed to be the Prabhu Mountains of the Puranas. It was here that sage Parashuram washed away his sin, sage Vyasa meditated, King Bhishmaka founded his kingdom and Lord Krishna married his consort Rukmini.
It is a land of lush green forests, deep river valleys and beautiful plateaus. The land is mostly mountainous with the Himalayan range along the northern borders criss-crossed with ranges running north-south. These divide the state into five river valleys: the Kameng, the Subansiri, the Siang, the Lohit and the Tirap. All these are fed by snow from the Himalayas and countless rivers and rivulets.
The weather and the climate of Arunachal Pradesh are quite different from the rest of the country. The climate of the State is dominated by the Himalayan system and the altitudinal variations. The climate is highly hot and humid at the lower altitudes and in the valleys covered by swampy dense forest particularly in the eastern section, while it becomes exceedingly cold in the higher altitudes. Average temperature during the winter months range from 15 to 21 degree celsius and 22 to 30 degree celsius during monsoon. The rainfall of Arunachal Pradesh in amongst the heaviest in the country. The annual average rainfall in Arunachal Pradesh is more than 350cm.
There are 26 major tribes and a number of sub-tribes inhabiting the area. Most of these communities are ethnically similar, having derived from original Mongoloid stock but their geographical isolation from each other has brought amongst them certain distinctive characteristics in language, dress and customs.
The widely scattered archeological remains at different places in Arunachal bears testimony to its rich cultural heritage. Arunachal Pradesh, a serene land tucked into the North Eastern tip of India, invites you to relax in its picturesque hills and valleys, enjoy its salubrious climate and meet its simple and hospitable people, with their glorious heritage of arts and crafts and colourful festivals that reflect their ancient faith in the inexorable power of nature.
Arunachal has a lot to offer depending upon the interest of visitors.
There are places of worship and piligrimage such as Parasuramkund and 400 years old Tawang Monastery, or the sites of archeological excavations like Malinithan and Itanagar, the serene beauty of lakes such as Ganga lake or Sela lake or the numerous variations of scenic beauty of the snowclad silver mountain peaks and lush green meadows where thousands of species of flora and fauna prosper.
In addition, the state provides abundant scope for angling, boating, rafting, trekking and hiking. Besides, there are a number of wild life sanctuaries and national parks where rare animals, birds and plants will fascinate the visitor. Trees of great size, plentiful climbers and abundance of cane and bamboo make Arunachal evergreen.
Arunachal Pradesh is considered to be the "nature's treasure trove"and home to orchids, known for their exquisitely beautiful blooms, from one of the dominant taxa with more than six hundred species, occurring in varying elevations and climatic conditions throughout the state.